Feminine cultures, on the other hand, define relatively overlapping social roles for the sexes, in which, in particular, men need not be ambitious or competitive but may go for a different quality of life than material success; men may respect whatever is small, weak, and slow.
This differs from in masculine cultures, where self-enhancement leads to self-esteem.
Debate continues as to what extent gender and gender roles are socially constructed (i.e.
non-biologically influenced), and to what extent "socially constructed" may be considered synonymous with "arbitrary" or "malleable".
Social constructionists state, for example, that gender-segregated children's activities create the appearance that gender differences in behavior reflect an essential nature of male and female behavior."In the 1950s, John Money, along with colleagues took up the study of intersex individuals, who, Money realized 'would provide invaluable material for the comparative study for bodily form and physiology, rearing, and psychosexual orientation'." Among the many terms he coined was gender role which he defined in a seminal 1955 paper as "all those things that a person says or does to disclose himself or herself as having the status of boy or man, girl or woman." In recent years, the majority of Money's theories regarding the importance of socialization in the determination of gender have come under intense criticism, especially in connection with the false reporting of success in the "John/Joan" case, later revealed to be David Reimer.West and Zimmerman developed an interactionist perspective on gender beyond its construction as "roles." For them, gender is "the product of social doings of some sort...undertaken by men and women whose competence as members of society is hostage to its production".Men and women in non-traditional gendered occupations, from top left to bottom right, or top to bottom (mobile): a male midwife in Oslo, Norway; women being sworn into the Afghan National Police; a woman doing construction work in the Solomon Islands; a male receptionist with FEMA assisting an applicant for disaster relief A gender role is a set of social norms dictating the types of behaviors which are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of femininity and masculinity, although there are exceptions and variations.